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Китайская транскрипция монгольских аффрикат в словаре Дада юй/Бэйлу июй (конец XVI – начало XVII в.)

https://doi.org/10.22162/2619-0990-2019-46-6-1119-1144

Аннотация

Введение. Настоящая статья является частью серии статей, посвященных китайско-монгольскому глоссарию Дада юй 韃靼語 / Бэйлу июй 北虜譯語 — малоизвестному лексикографическому труду, датирующемуся между 1567 и 1603 гг. Цель. В статье рассматривается китайская транскрипция монгольских аффрикат в связи с проблемой их фонемного статуса и дистрибутивных особенностей в монгольском диалекте словаря, отражающем переходный этап между среднемонгольским и современным монгольским периодами в развитии монгольских языков. В работе также обсуждается влияние на систему транскрипций монгольских аффрикат нескольких стадий фонетического развития китайского языка, таких как: 1) северномандаринское диалектное койне XVI–XVII вв., на основе которого сформировался современный стандартный китайский; 2) т. н. стандартный позднеминский гуаньхуа 官話 XV–XVII вв., сложившийся на основе южномандаринских диалектов и обладавший рядом архаичных и диалектно специфичных черт; 3) древнемандаринский — разговорное койне XII–XIV вв., отражавшее произношение столицы династии Юань — г. Даду 大都 (совр. Пекин). Результаты. На основе китайской транскрипции в звуковой системе монгольского диалекта словаря выделяются две серии аффрикат: аспирированные ([ʧh], [ʨh], [tsh]) и неаспирированные ([ʧ], [ʨ], [ts]). Интересной особенностью является наличие глухих аспирированных альвеопалатальных аффрикат ʨ [ʨh] и ʥ [ʨ], которые предположительно развились из более ранних среднемонгольских палатоальвеолярных č [ʧh] и ǰ [ʧ] перед историческим *i. Что касается c [tsh] и ʒ [ts], они засвидетельствованы только в нескольких лексических единицах и могут рассматриваться как маргинальные аллофоны фонем č [ʧh] и ǰ [ʧ], соответственно. Автор приходит к выводу, что структуры как аспирированной, так и неаспирированной серий полностью идентичны: каждый из них состоит из базового аллофона ([ʧh] vs. [ʧ]) и двух неосновных позиционных аллофонов, один из которых ([tsh] vs. [ts]), кроме того, может рассматриваться как маргинальный или проблематичный из-за его крайне ограниченной дистрибуции.

Об авторе

Павел Олегович Рыкин
Институт лингвистических исследований РАН
Россия

кандидат исторических наук, старший научный сотрудник



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Рыкин П.О. Китайская транскрипция монгольских аффрикат в словаре Дада юй/Бэйлу июй (конец XVI – начало XVII в.). Oriental Studies. 2019;46(6):1119-1144. https://doi.org/10.22162/2619-0990-2019-46-6-1119-1144

For citation:


Rykin P. Chinese Transcription of Mongol Affricates in the Sino-Mongol Glossary Dada yu/Beilu yiyu (Late 16th – Early 17th Cent.). Oriental Studies. 2019;46(6):1119-1144. https://doi.org/10.22162/2619-0990-2019-46-6-1119-1144

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ISSN 2619-0990 (Print)
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